Management
Guidelines
Portal
PKU Nutrition Management Guidelines
First Edition
March 2015, v.1.12
Updated: August 2016
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Nutrition Recommendations
Question
4. For individuals with PKU monitoring of which parameters is associated with positive outcomes?
Conclusion Statement
Derived from evidence and consensus based clinical practice

Regular monitoring of clinical and nutritional status to determine adequacy of nutrient intake, and to guide modifications in the dietary prescription appropriately, is central to management of individuals with PKU. It is important to monitor growth and development, as well as status of micronutrients that are impacted by limited intake of intact protein and adherence with medical food consumption. Hence, clinical monitoring includes assessment of dietary intake, nutrient analysis, growth, and evaluation of clinical signs and symptoms. Biochemical monitoring includes frequent measurements of blood PHE, TYR and PRO status; as well as additional biochemical tests to determine status of at risk nutrients when indicated. This additional testing includes: assessment of essential fatty acids, vitamin D, B12, folate, iron, trace mineral status, and bone status as indicated. The individual's outcome measures are also informed by assessments of neurocognition and quality of life.

Recommendation 4.1

Monitor dietary records to assess adequacy of nutrient intake in supporting appropriate growth and nutritional status. If intake is suboptimal, modify individual dietary recommendations and counseling to improve adherence. See TABLE #8, Monitoring Nutritional Management of PKU for monitoring of nutrition management.

Strength of Recommendation:
Insufficient EvidenceConsensusWeakFairStrong
Clinical Action:
ConditionalImperative
Recommendation 4.2

Monitor age-specific anthropometrics. See Table TABLE #8, Monitoring Nutritional Management of PKU for monitoring of nutrition management.

Strength of Recommendation:
Insufficient EvidenceConsensusWeakFairStrong
Clinical Action:
ConditionalImperative
Recommendation 4.3

Routinely monitor clinical indicators and biochemical markers for deficiency or excess of nutrients whose intake may not be optimal in an individual on a PHE-restricted diet (PHE, TYR, PRO, iron and vitamin D). See TABLE #8, Monitoring Nutritional Management of PKU for monitoring of nutrition management.

Strength of Recommendation:
Insufficient EvidenceConsensusWeakFairStrong
Clinical Action:
ConditionalImperative
Recommendation 4.4

Monitor clinical indicators and biochemical markers when indicated by circumstances such as rapid growth, pregnancy, poor compliance with management recommendations, or consumption of an incomplete medical food.  See TABLE #8, Monitoring Nutritional Management of PKU for monitoring of nutrition management.

Strength of Recommendation:
Insufficient EvidenceConsensusWeakFairStrong
Clinical Action:
ConditionalImperative
Recommendation 4.5

Monitor neurocognitive development. See Table TABLE #9, Recommendations for Neurocognitive Testing in PKU for recommended neurocognitive testing for individuals with PKU.

Strength of Recommendation:
Insufficient EvidenceConsensusWeakFairStrong
Clinical Action:
ConditionalImperative
Recommendation 4.6

Assess quality of life using age- and disorder-specific instruments when possible. See TABLE #8, Monitoring Nutritional Management of PKU for monitoring of nutrition management.

Strength of Recommendation:
Insufficient EvidenceConsensusWeakFairStrong
Clinical Action:
ConditionalImperative
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